Inwhatever may have been the ducal theory, it is very doubtful whether such great families as Beaumont, Tosny, and Montgomery would have admitted that they held their lands by conditional tenure from the duke. Not only did inter-marriages between the greater families continue to strengthen the ties between them, but the magnates themselves were able to reproduce in England the close relationship with their dependents which they had established in Normandy before the Conquest.
Thus it was that during the Conqueror's reign it became progressively the practice of his tenants-in-chief in England to make provision on their own estates for the knights whose service was owed to the king.
Kings of England are shown in bold.
If less, the tenant-in-chief would be compelled to secure mercenary knights to discharge his duty to the king: if more, he would have a private force at his command in excess of the knights he provided for the king.
Bertin ed. He died in early July at Niceaon his way back to Normandy. Power in this period became more personal. Print entire article A new order After the famous defeat of King Harold by William of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings inthe lands and riches of the Anglo-Saxon ruling class were systematically removed by its conquerors.
Although the army and fleet were ready by early August, adverse winds kept the ships in Normandy until late September. Oct William took treasury Following the defeat of Harold at the Battle of Hastings, William made it his first priority to gain control of the English treasury.
After all, much of the warfare he had waged as duke before had consisted of attacks on fortified strongholds such as Brionne, Domfront, and Arques; and in such operations mounted troops would have had but a small part to play.
He finally crossed the Thames at Wallingford in early December.